Object Detection for Agricultural Vehicles: Ensemble Method Based on Hierarchy of Classes

Esma Mujkic, Martin P Christiansen, Ole Ravn

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Vision-based object detection is essential for safe and efficient field operation for autonomous agricultural vehicles. However, one of the challenges in transferring state-of-the-art object detectors to the agricultural domain is the limited availability of labeled datasets. This paper seeks to address this challenge by utilizing two object detection models based on YOLOv5, one pre-trained on a large-scale dataset for detecting general classes of objects and one trained to detect a smaller number of agriculture-specific classes. To combine the detections of the models at inference, we propose an ensemble module based on a hierarchical structure of classes. Results show that applying the proposed ensemble module increases mAP@.5 from 0.575 to 0.65 on the test dataset and reduces the misclassification of similar classes detected by different models. Furthermore, by translating detections from base classes to a higher level in the class hierarchy, we can increase the overall mAP@.5 to 0.701 at the cost of reducing class granularity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7285
Issue number16
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Agricultural vehicles
  • Ensemble methods
  • Object detection


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