NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

D. R. Ballantyne, J. M. Bollenbacher, L. W. Brenneman, K. K. Madsen, M. Balokovic, S. E. Boggs, Finn Erland Christensen, W. W. Craig, P. Gandhi, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, A. M. Lohfink, A. Marinucci, C. B. Markwardt, D. Stern, D. J. Walton, W. W. Zhang

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Abstract

Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of $\Gamma=1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is $\Gamma=1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe K$\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume794
Issue number1
Number of pages10
ISSN0004-637X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

Ballantyne, D. R., Bollenbacher, J. M., Brenneman, L. W., Madsen, K. K., Balokovic, M., Boggs, S. E., ... Zhang, W. W. (2014). NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382. Astrophysical Journal, 794(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62
Ballantyne, D. R. ; Bollenbacher, J. M. ; Brenneman, L. W. ; Madsen, K. K. ; Balokovic, M. ; Boggs, S. E. ; Christensen, Finn Erland ; Craig, W. W. ; Gandhi, P. ; Hailey, C. J. ; Harrison, F. A. ; Lohfink, A. M. ; Marinucci, A. ; Markwardt, C. B. ; Stern, D. ; Walton, D. J. ; Zhang, W. W. / NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 794, No. 1.
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title = "NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382",
abstract = "Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of $\Gamma=1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is $\Gamma=1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\sim 10${\%} of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe K$\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.",
author = "Ballantyne, {D. R.} and Bollenbacher, {J. M.} and Brenneman, {L. W.} and Madsen, {K. K.} and M. Balokovic and Boggs, {S. E.} and Christensen, {Finn Erland} and Craig, {W. W.} and P. Gandhi and Hailey, {C. J.} and Harrison, {F. A.} and Lohfink, {A. M.} and A. Marinucci and Markwardt, {C. B.} and D. Stern and Walton, {D. J.} and Zhang, {W. W.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62",
language = "English",
volume = "794",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
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Ballantyne, DR, Bollenbacher, JM, Brenneman, LW, Madsen, KK, Balokovic, M, Boggs, SE, Christensen, FE, Craig, WW, Gandhi, P, Hailey, CJ, Harrison, FA, Lohfink, AM, Marinucci, A, Markwardt, CB, Stern, D, Walton, DJ & Zhang, WW 2014, 'NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 794, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62

NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382. / Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Balokovic, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A. M.; Marinucci, A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 794, No. 1, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

AU - Ballantyne, D. R.

AU - Bollenbacher, J. M.

AU - Brenneman, L. W.

AU - Madsen, K. K.

AU - Balokovic, M.

AU - Boggs, S. E.

AU - Christensen, Finn Erland

AU - Craig, W. W.

AU - Gandhi, P.

AU - Hailey, C. J.

AU - Harrison, F. A.

AU - Lohfink, A. M.

AU - Marinucci, A.

AU - Markwardt, C. B.

AU - Stern, D.

AU - Walton, D. J.

AU - Zhang, W. W.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of $\Gamma=1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is $\Gamma=1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe K$\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.

AB - Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of $\Gamma=1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is $\Gamma=1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe K$\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62

M3 - Journal article

VL - 794

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

ER -

Ballantyne DR, Bollenbacher JM, Brenneman LW, Madsen KK, Balokovic M, Boggs SE et al. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382. Astrophysical Journal. 2014;794(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/62