Non-unit protection method for MMC-HVDC grids based on selective drop rate of voltage traveling waves

Farzad Dehghan Marvasti*, Ahmad Mirzaei, Mehdi Savaghebi, Aleksandra Lekić, Marjan Popov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Fast, sensitive, and selective protection principles are one of the major challenges in the feasibility of modular multi-terminal (MMC) high voltage direct current (HVDC) grids. Rate of change of voltage (ROCOV) and transient-based solutions are the traditional and widely accepted protection principles. Despite the speed and practicality of these solutions, they generally suffer from sensitivity and selectivity issues, particularly when dealing with high-resistance faults and low-size current limiting inductors (CLIs). To improve upon these methods, this paper proposes a new primary protection method that utilizes a selective drop rate of fault-generated voltage traveling waves (TW) to detect internal DC line faults. This is achieved by a comprehensive analysis of the line-mode fault-generated voltage (LFGV) under various internal and external fault scenarios. As the key fault characteristics, the proposed method exploits the minimum points of initial LFGV and the corresponding time to form the basis of the proposed protection method. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated using a four-terminal MMC-HVDC grid in PSCAD/EMTDC. Compared to ROCOV and transient-based solutions, the proposed method identifies internal faults up to 1250 Ω with fast response, while maintaining its practicality and independence to CLI size.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy Reports
Pages (from-to)3740-3755
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Fault-generated voltage traveling wave
  • MMC-HVDC protection
  • Primary protection
  • Traveling wave protection


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