Novel mechanisms for zonal flow (ZF) generation for both large relative density fluctuations and background density gradients are presented. In this non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) regime ZFs are driven by the Favre stress, the large fluctuation extension of the Reynolds stress, and by background density gradient and radial particle flux dominated terms. Simulations of a nonlinear full-F gyro-fluid model confirm the predicted mechanism for radial ZF propagation and show the significance of the NOB ZF terms for either large relative density fluctuation levels or steep background density gradients.
- Zonal flows
- Oloidal rotation
- Non-Oberbeck-Bousinessq effects
- Full-F gyro/drift-fluid theory
- Reynolds stress
- Favre stress