NMR spectroscopy of exchangeable protons of glucoamylase and of complexes with inhibitors in the 9-15-ppm range

L. M. Firsov, K. N. Neustroev, A. E. Aleshin, C. M. Metzler, D. E. Metzler, R. D. Scott, B. Stoffer, T. Christensen, Birte Svensson

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Abstract

1H-NMR spectra have been recorded for glucoamylases I and II from Aspergillus awamori var. X100 and from A. niger in the 9-15-ppm region. At least 17 distinct peaks, many of them arising from single protons, are observed. These are designated A-Q, A being the furthest downfield. At least 9 of these are lost rapidly by exchange when the enzyme is placed in D2O. Peaks A, B, E and H undergo distinct shifts with pH change in the pH region 3-7. Several others undergo smaller shifts. Small differences are also seen between the enzymes from the two different sources. Binding of the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose leads to a 0.50-ppm downfield shift of peak B, other smaller changes, and retention of two additional protons in D2O. delta-D-gluconolactone induces shifts in peaks E, H, and L. The slow substrate maltitol causes peak A to broaden and shift, peaks J and K to shift and a new or greatly shifted resonance to appear at 15.4 ppm. It disappears as the maltitol is hydrolyzed. Treatment with iodoacetamide or diethyl pyrocarbonate leads to disappearance of peak D at 12.3 ppm. When this peak was irradiated strong nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) were observed at 8.01 ppm and 7.22 ppm, positions expected for the C epsilon 1 and C delta 2 protons of an uncharged imidazole ring. We identify D as arising from the N epsilon 2 proton of His254 which is uncharged except at the lowest pH values. Other NOE and two-dimensional NOE spectra have provided additional information. Three mutant forms of the A. niger enzyme, in which tryptophan residues have been replaced by phenylalanine, have been examined. Because of shifts induced by changes in ring current and other environmental effects it is hard to make a direct identification of the resonances from the replaced indole NH protons. However, on the basis of a distinct NOE between peaks E and H we have identified these resonances as arising from the indole NH protons of Trp52 and Trp120. Other possible assignments are considered. The NMR spectra of the glucoamylases I, which have a starch binding domain of about 104 residues at the carboxyl terminus, show four sharp resonances in the 9.7-10.6-ppm range that are not present in the glucoamylases II, which lack this domain. These resonances no doubt represent the four indole NH ring protons from Trp543, Trp562, Trp590 and Trp615. Three of these are very sharp suggesting a high mobility of this domain.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Volume223
Pages (from-to)293-303
ISSN0014-2956
Publication statusPublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

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