In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3 and Gat1 act positively on gene expression whereas :Da180 and Deh1 act negatively. Expression of nitrogen catabolite pathway genes known to be regulated by these four regulators are glutamine, glutamate, proline, urea, arginine, GABA, and allantoine. In addition, the expression of the genes encoding the general amino acid permease and the ammonium permease are also regulated by these four regulatory proteins. Another group of genes whose expression is also regulated by Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1 are some proteases, CPS1, PRB1, LAP1, and PEP4, responsible for the degradation of proteins into amino acids thereby providing a nitrogen source to the cell.In this review, all known promoter sequences related to expression of nitrogen catabolite pathways are discussed as well as other regulatory proteins. Overview of metabolic pathways and promoters are presented.
|Publication status||Published - 1999|