Nickel and Cobalt Release From Children's Toys Purchased in Denmark and the United States

P. Jensen, Dathan Hamann, Carsten R. Hamann, Morten Stendahl Jellesen, Sharon E. Jacob, J.P. Thyssen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release from children's toys.
Methods: We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests.
Results: A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released cobalt.
Conclusions: Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDermatitis
Volume25
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)356-365
Number of pages10
ISSN1710-3568
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • DERMATOLOGY
  • ALLERGIC CONTACT-DERMATITIS
  • PATCH TESTS
  • EXPOSURE
  • INFANTS
  • SENSITIZATION
  • SENSITIVITY
  • REACTIVITY
  • JEWELRY

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