Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on beta-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 degrees C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a dade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 degrees C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 degrees C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be dearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 degrees C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin.
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- Polyphasic taxonomy
- Aspergillus section Usti