Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with a high burden of comorbidities and poor clinical outcomes. Malnutrition–inflammation–atherosclerosis syndrome is common in the more severe stages of CKD, suggesting a close interplay for these three comorbid conditions. Both malnutrition and obesity are associated with a disturbed adipokine profile and inflammation, contributing to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Adiponectin and leptin have important roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and in the inflammatory process. The effects of adiponectin and leptin alterations in CKD, which are usually increased, and their association with the different comorbidities found in CKD, will be focused on to understand their crosstalk with the risk of CVD events. Nonetheless, although adiponectin and leptin contribute to a higher risk of CVD events, further studies are warranted to fully clarify their roles, especially when different comorbidities exist.
|Number of pages||19|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|
- Chronic kidney disease
- Cardiovascular disease