Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS

Samuel N. Quinn*, Juliette C. Becker, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Sam Hadden, Chelsea X. Huang, Timothy D. Morton, Fred C. Adams, David Armstrong, Jason D. Eastman, Jonathan Horner, Stephen R. Kane, Jack J. Lissauer, Joseph D. Twicken, Andrew Vanderburg, Rob Wittenmyer, George R. Ricker, Roland K. Vanderspek, David W. Latham, Sara Seager, Joshua N. WinnJon M. Jenkins, Eric Agol, Khalid Barkaoui, Charles A. Beichman, François Bouchy, L. G. Bouma, Artem Burdanov, Jennifer Campbell, Roberto Carlino, Scott M. Cartwright, David Charbonneau, Jessie L. Christiansen, David Ciardi, Karen A. Collins, Kevin I. Collins, Dennis M. Conti, Ian J. M. Crossfield, Tansu Daylan, Jason Dittmann, John Doty, Diana Dragomir, Elsa Ducrot, Michael Gillon, Ana Glidden, Robert F. Goeke, Erica J. Gonzales, Krzysztof G. Helminiak, Elliott P. Horch, Steve B. Howell, Emmanuel Jehin, Eric L. N. Jensen, John F. Kielkopf, Martti H. Kristiansen, Nicholas Law, Andrew W. Mann, Maxime Marmier, Rachel A. Matson, Elisabeth Matthews, Tsevi Mazeh, Mayuko Mori, Felipe Murgas, Catriona Murray, Norio Narita, Louise D. Nielsen, Gaël Ottoni, Enric Palle, Rafal Pawlaszek, Francesco Pepe, Jerome Pitogo de Leon, Francisco J. Pozuelos, Howard M. Relles, Joshua E. Schlieder, Daniel Sebastian, Damien Ségransan, Avi Shporer, Keivan G. Stassun, Motohide Tamura, Stéphane Udry, Ian Waite, Jennifer G. Winters, Carl Ziegler

*Corresponding author for this work

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We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite detection of a multi-planet system orbiting the V = 10.9 K0 dwarf TOI-125. We find evidence for up to five planets, with varying confidence. Three transit signals with high signal-to-noise ratio correspond to sub-Neptune-sized planets (2.76, 2.79, and 2.94 R ⊕), and we statistically validate the planetary nature of the two inner planets (P b = 4.65 days, P c = 9.15 days). With only two transits observed, we report the outer object (P .03 = 19.98 days) as a planet candidate with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also detect a candidate transiting super-Earth (1.4 R ⊕) with an orbital period of only 12.7 hr and a candidate Neptune-sized planet (4.2 R ⊕) with a period of 13.28 days, both at low signal-to-noise ratio. This system is amenable to mass determination via radial velocities and transit-timing variations, and provides an opportunity to study planets of similar size while controlling for age and environment. The ratio of orbital periods between TOI-125 b and c (P c /P b = 1.97) is slightly lower than an exact 2:1 commensurability and is atypical of multiple planet systems from Kepler, which show a preference for period ratios just wide of first-order period ratios. A dynamical analysis refines the allowed parameter space through stability arguments and suggests that despite the nearly commensurate periods, the system is unlikely to be in resonance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number177
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number5
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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