Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites Produced in vitro by Penicillium paneum Frisvad and Penicillium roqueforti Thom Isolated from Baled Grass Silage in Ireland

Martin O'Brien, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Padraig O'Kiely, Patrick D. Forristal, Hubert Fuller, Jens Christian Frisvad

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    Abstract

    Secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium paneum and Penicillium roqueforti from baled grass silage were analyzed. A total of 157 isolates were investigated, comprising 78 P. paneum and 79 P. roqueforti isolates randomly selected from more than 900 colonies cultured from bales. The findings mostly agreed with the literature, although some metabolites were not consistently produced by either fungus. Roquefortine C, marcfortine A, and andrastin A were consistently produced, whereas PR toxin and patulin were not. Five silage samples were screened for fungal metabolites, with two visually moldy samples containing up to 20 mg/kg of roquefortine C, mycophenolic acid, and andrastin A along with minor quantities (0.1-5 mg/kg) of roquefortines A, B, and D, festuclavine, marcfortine A, and agroclavine. Three visually nonmoldy samples contained low amounts of mycophenolic acid and andrastin A. The ability of both molds to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites in vitro and in silage should be a concern to livestock producers.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Volume54
    Issue number24
    Pages (from-to)9268-9276
    ISSN0021-8561
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Keywords

    • Penicillium paneum
    • Penicillium roqueforti
    • Baled grass silage
    • Secondary metabolites
    • Patulin
    • Roquefortine C
    • Mycophenolic acid
    • PR toxin
    • Andrastin A

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