Multi‐point Conjugate Observations of Dayside ULF Waves during an Extended Period of Radial IMF

Xiaodong Shi*, M. D. Hartinger, J. B. H. Baker, J. M. Ruohoniemi, D. Lin, Z. Xu, S. Coyle, B. S. R. Kunduri, L. M. Kilcommons, A. Willer

*Corresponding author for this work

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Long‐lasting Pc5 ultralow frequency (ULF) waves spanning the dayside and extending from L ∼ 5.5 into the polar cap region were observed by conjugate ground magnetometers. Observations from MMS satellites in the magnetosphere and magnetometers on the ground confirmed that the ULF waves on closed field lines were due to fundamental toroidal standing Alfvén waves. Monochromatic waves at lower latitudes tended to maximize their power away from noon in both the morning and afternoon sectors, while more broadband waves at higher latitudes tended to have a wave power maximum near noon. The wave power distribution and MMS satellite observations during the magnetopause crossing indicate surface waves on a Kelvin‐Helmholtz (KH) unstable magnetopause coupled with standing Alfvén waves. The more turbulent ion foreshock during an extended period of radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) likely plays an important role in providing seed perturbations for the growth of the KH waves. These results indicate that the Pc5 waves observed on closed field lines and on the open field lines of the polar cap were from the same source.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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