Multiplex lateral flow assay development for snake venom detection in biological matrices

Cecilie Knudsen*, Selma B. Belfakir*, Pelle Degnegaard, Jonas A Jürgensen, Aleksander M. Haack, Rasmus U. W. Friis, Søren H. Dam, Andreas H. Laustsen, Georgina M. S. Ross*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Bothrops and Lachesis are two of Brazil's medically most relevant snake genera, causing tens of thousands of bites annually. Fortunately, Brazil has good accessibility to high-quality antivenoms at the genus and inter-genus level, enabling the treatment of many of these envenomings. However, the optimal use of these treatments requires that the snake species responsible for the bite is determined. Currently, physicians use a syndromic approach to diagnose snakebite, which can be difficult for medical personnel with limited training in clinical snakebite management. In this work, we have developed a novel monoclonal antibody-based multiplex lateral flow assay for differentiating Bothrops and Lachesis venoms within 15 min. The test can be read by the naked eye or (semi)-quantitatively by a smartphone supported by a 3D-printed attachment for controlling lighting conditions. The LFA can detect Bothrops and Lachesis venoms in spiked plasma and urine matrices at concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. The LFA has detection limits of 10-50 ng/mL in spiked plasma and urine, and 50-500 ng/mL in spiked sera, for B. atrox and L. muta venoms. This test could potentially support medical personnel in correctly diagnosing snakebite envenomings at the point-of-care in Brazil, which may help improve patient outcomes and save lives.
Original languageEnglish
JournalScientific Reports
Pages (from-to)2567
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


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