Multi-Agent Sliding Mode Control for State of Charge Balancing Between Battery Energy Storage Systems Distributed in a DC Microgrid

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2018Researchpeer-review


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This paper proposes the novel use of multi-agent sliding mode control for state of charge balancing between distributed de microgrid battery energy storage systems. Unlike existing control strategies based on linear multi-agent consensus protocols, the proposed nonlinear state of charge balancing strategy: 1) ensures the battery energy storage systems are either all charging or all discharging, thus eliminating circulating currents, increasing efficiency, and reducing battery lifetime degradation; 2) achieves faster state of charge balancing; 3) avoids overloading the battery energy storage systems during periods of high load; and 4) provides plug and play capability. The proposed control strategy can be readily integrated with existing multi-agent controllers for secondary voltage regulation and accurate current sharing. The performance of the proposed control strategy was verified with an RTDS Technologies real-time digital simulator, using switching converter models and nonlinear lead-acid battery models.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)4735-4743
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2018
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

    Research areas

  • Battery energy storage systems, DC microgrid, Distributed energy storage, Distributed sliding mode control, Hybrid systems, Multi-agent control, Secondary control, State of charge balancing
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ID: 153126248