Multi-Scale Multiphysics Simulation of Metal L-PBF AM Process and Subsequent Mechanical Analysis

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In this paper, a multi-physics numerical model for multi-track-multi-layer laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is developed and used for analysing the formation and evolution of porosities caused by lack of fusion and improper melting. The simulations are divided into two categories: first and foremost, a multi-physics thermo-fluid model in meso-scale, and second, a mechanical model based on the concept of a unit cell. The thermo-fluid model is used to track and observe the formation of the porosities, and considers phenomena such as multi-phase flow, melting/solidification, radiation heat transfer, capillary and thermo-capillary (Marangoni effect) forces, recoil pressure, geometry dependant absorptivity, and finally evaporation and evaporative cooling. The results for the investigated process parameters indicate that the porosities are mainly formed due to improper fusion of the particles. The probability of presence of pores is also observed to be higher in the first layers. Moreover, the lack of fusion zones are seen to become smaller in the subsequent layers, largely due to better fluid flow and higher temperatures in those layers. Based on the porosity levels determined from the thermo-fluid model, a unit cell mechanical model with an equivalent amount of porosity has been made and subsequently subjected to loading for analysing the part’s mechanical behaviour. The unit cell results show that an increase in the porosity can highly affect and deteriorate the part’s elastic modulus and its yield strength, as well. The combination of the thermo-fluid and the mechanical unit cell model establishes a direct link between process parameters and mechanical properties for L-PBF.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date2018
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event12th International Seminar of Numerical Analysis of Weldability - Schloss, Graz, Austria
Duration: 23 Sep 201826 Sep 2018


Seminar12th International Seminar of Numerical Analysis of Weldability


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