Monochloropropanediol and glycidyl esters in infant formula and baby food products on the Danish market: Occurrence and preliminary risk assessment

Khanh Hoang Nguyen*, Arvid Fromberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

A GC/MS-MS method for determination of monochloropropanediol (MCPDEs) and glycidol (GEs) was developed, validated, and applied to analyze 60 infant formula and baby food products commercially available on the Danish market. The contaminants were quantifiable in almost all sample categories with the exception of fruit or vegetable based purees. The highest concentrations of 3-MCPDEs and 2-MCPDEs were found in a baby biscuit product at 102.6 μg/kg and 52.8 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, a baby puff item contained GEs as high as 149 μg/kg. MCPDEs and GEs concentrations are well correlated with each other in all sample types except puffs and biscuits. Occurrence data suggested that GEs formation might have taken place during production of baby puffs by unknown mechanisms. Preliminary exposure and risk assessment showed no apparent risk of Danish infants to these chemicals in formula and baby foods. However, special attention should be paid when feeding babies with puffs or similar items due to their relatively high level of GEs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106980
JournalFood Control
Volume110
Number of pages8
ISSN0956-7135
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • MCPD esters
  • Glycidyl esters
  • Infant formula
  • Baby food
  • Processing contaminants
  • Risk assessment

Cite this

@article{1ef4c974e5f8494fb27cd1fcd9c6f375,
title = "Monochloropropanediol and glycidyl esters in infant formula and baby food products on the Danish market: Occurrence and preliminary risk assessment",
abstract = "A GC/MS-MS method for determination of monochloropropanediol (MCPDEs) and glycidol (GEs) was developed, validated, and applied to analyze 60 infant formula and baby food products commercially available on the Danish market. The contaminants were quantifiable in almost all sample categories with the exception of fruit or vegetable based purees. The highest concentrations of 3-MCPDEs and 2-MCPDEs were found in a baby biscuit product at 102.6 μg/kg and 52.8 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, a baby puff item contained GEs as high as 149 μg/kg. MCPDEs and GEs concentrations are well correlated with each other in all sample types except puffs and biscuits. Occurrence data suggested that GEs formation might have taken place during production of baby puffs by unknown mechanisms. Preliminary exposure and risk assessment showed no apparent risk of Danish infants to these chemicals in formula and baby foods. However, special attention should be paid when feeding babies with puffs or similar items due to their relatively high level of GEs.",
keywords = "MCPD esters, Glycidyl esters, Infant formula, Baby food, Processing contaminants, Risk assessment",
author = "Nguyen, {Khanh Hoang} and Arvid Fromberg",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106980",
language = "English",
volume = "110",
journal = "Food Control",
issn = "0956-7135",
publisher = "Pergamon Press",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Monochloropropanediol and glycidyl esters in infant formula and baby food products on the Danish market: Occurrence and preliminary risk assessment

AU - Nguyen, Khanh Hoang

AU - Fromberg, Arvid

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - A GC/MS-MS method for determination of monochloropropanediol (MCPDEs) and glycidol (GEs) was developed, validated, and applied to analyze 60 infant formula and baby food products commercially available on the Danish market. The contaminants were quantifiable in almost all sample categories with the exception of fruit or vegetable based purees. The highest concentrations of 3-MCPDEs and 2-MCPDEs were found in a baby biscuit product at 102.6 μg/kg and 52.8 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, a baby puff item contained GEs as high as 149 μg/kg. MCPDEs and GEs concentrations are well correlated with each other in all sample types except puffs and biscuits. Occurrence data suggested that GEs formation might have taken place during production of baby puffs by unknown mechanisms. Preliminary exposure and risk assessment showed no apparent risk of Danish infants to these chemicals in formula and baby foods. However, special attention should be paid when feeding babies with puffs or similar items due to their relatively high level of GEs.

AB - A GC/MS-MS method for determination of monochloropropanediol (MCPDEs) and glycidol (GEs) was developed, validated, and applied to analyze 60 infant formula and baby food products commercially available on the Danish market. The contaminants were quantifiable in almost all sample categories with the exception of fruit or vegetable based purees. The highest concentrations of 3-MCPDEs and 2-MCPDEs were found in a baby biscuit product at 102.6 μg/kg and 52.8 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, a baby puff item contained GEs as high as 149 μg/kg. MCPDEs and GEs concentrations are well correlated with each other in all sample types except puffs and biscuits. Occurrence data suggested that GEs formation might have taken place during production of baby puffs by unknown mechanisms. Preliminary exposure and risk assessment showed no apparent risk of Danish infants to these chemicals in formula and baby foods. However, special attention should be paid when feeding babies with puffs or similar items due to their relatively high level of GEs.

KW - MCPD esters

KW - Glycidyl esters

KW - Infant formula

KW - Baby food

KW - Processing contaminants

KW - Risk assessment

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106980

DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106980

M3 - Journal article

VL - 110

JO - Food Control

JF - Food Control

SN - 0956-7135

M1 - 106980

ER -