Monitoring the Isothermal Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates Using Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy

Chima Robert, Sara J. Fraser-Miller, Kā Rlis Bē Rziņš, Peter O. Okeyo, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Keith C. Gordon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Detection of the solid-state forms of pharmaceutical compounds is important from the drug performance point of view. Low-frequency Raman (LFR) spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be very sensitive in detecting the different solid-state forms of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. The potential of LFR spectroscopy to probe the in situ isothermal dehydration was studied using piroxicam monohydrate (PXM) and theophylline monohydrate (TPMH) as the model drugs. The dehydration of PXM and TPMH at four different temperatures (95, 100, 105, and 110 °C and 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C, respectively) was monitored in both the low- (20-300 cm-1) and mid-frequency (335-1800 cm-1) regions of the Raman spectra. Principal component analysis and multivariate curve resolution were applied for the analysis of the Raman data. Spectral differences observed in both regions highlighted the formation of specific anhydrous forms of piroxicam and theophylline from their respective monohydrates. The formation of the anhydrous forms was detected on different timescales (approx. 2 min) between the low and mid-frequency Raman regions. This finding highlights the differing nature of the vibrations being detected between these two spectral regions. Computational simulations performed were also in agreement with the experimental results, and allowed elucidating the origin of different spectral features.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Pharmaceutics
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1264-1276
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Computational chemistry
  • Dehydration
  • Low-frequency Raman spectroscopy
  • Mid-frequency Raman
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Piroxicam
  • Theophylline


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