Monitoring of Farm-Level Antimicrobial Use to Guide Stewardship: Overview of Existing Systems and Analysis of Key Components and Processes

Pim Sanders*, Wannes Vanderhaeghen, Mette Ely Fertner, Klemens Fuchs, Walter Obritzhauser, Agnes Agunos, Carolee Carson, Birgitte Borck Høg, Vibe Dalhoff Andersen, Claire Chauvin, Anne Hémonic, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Roswitha Merle, Giovanni L. Alborali, Federico Scali, Katharina D.C. Stärk, Cedric Muentener, Ingeborg van Geijlswijk, Fraser Broadfoot, Lucie PokludováClair L. Firth, Luís P. Carmo, Edgar Garcia Manzanilla, Laura Mark Jensen, Marie Sjölund, Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Stacey Brown, Dick Heederik, Jeroen Dewulf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

84 Downloads (Pure)


The acknowledgment of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a major health challenge in humans, animals and plants, has led to increased efforts to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU). To better understand factors influencing AMR and implement and evaluate stewardship measures for reducing AMU, it is important to have sufficiently detailed information on the quantity of AMU, preferably at the level of the user (farmer, veterinarian) and/or prescriber or provider (veterinarian, feed mill). Recently, several countries have established or are developing systems for monitoring AMU in animals. The aim of this publication is to provide an overview of known systems for monitoring AMU at farm-level, with a descriptive analysis of their key components and processes. As of March 2020, 38 active farm-level AMU monitoring systems from 16 countries were identified. These systems differ in many ways, including which data are collected, the type of analyses conducted and their respective output. At the same time, they share key components (data collection, analysis, benchmarking, and reporting), resulting in similar challenges to be faced with similar decisions to be made. Suggestions are provided with respect to the different components and important aspects of various data types and methods are discussed. This overview should provide support for establishing or working with such a system and could lead to a better implementation of stewardship actions and a more uniform communication about and understanding of AMU data at farm-level. Harmonization of methods and processes could lead to an improved comparability of outcomes and less confusion when interpreting results across systems. However, it is important to note that the development of systems also depends on specific local needs, resources and aims.

Original languageEnglish
Article number540
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • antimicrobial use
  • benchmarking
  • indicator
  • livestock
  • monitoring
  • overview


Dive into the research topics of 'Monitoring of Farm-Level Antimicrobial Use to Guide Stewardship: Overview of Existing Systems and Analysis of Key Components and Processes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this