Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet

J. Westerweel, C. Fukushima, Jakob Martin Pedersen, J. C. R. Hunt

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    Conditionally sampled measurements with particle image velocimetry (PIV) of a turbulent round submerged liquid jet in a laboratory have been taken at Re = 2 x 10(3) between 60 and 100 nozzle diameters from the nozzle in order to investigate the dynamics and transport processes at the continuous and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence the mean outward 'boundary entrainment' velocity is derived and shown to be a constant fraction (about 0.07) of the the mean jet velocity on the centreline. Profiles of the conditional mean velocity, mean scalar and momentum flux show that at the interface there are clear discontinuities in the mean axial velocity and mean scalar and a tendency towards a singularity in mean vorticity. These actual or asymptotic discontinuities are consistent with the conditional mean momentum and scalar transport equations integrated across the interface. Measurements of the fluxes of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy are consistent with computations by Mathew & Basu (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14, 2002, pp. 2065-2072) in showing that for a jet flow (without forcing) the entrainment process is dominated by small-scale eddying at the highly sheared interface ('nibbling'), with large-scale engulfing making a small (less than 10%) contribution consistent with concentration measurements showing that the interior of the jet is well mixed. (Turbulent jets differ greatly from the free shear layer in this respect.) To explain the difference between velocity and scalar profiles, their conditional mean gradients are defined in terms of a local eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity and the momentum and scalar fluxes inside the interface. Since the eddy diffusivity is larger than the eddy viscosity, the scalar profile is flatter inside the interface so that the scalar discontinuity is relatively greater than the mean velocity discontinuity. Theoretical arguments, following Hunt, Eames & Westerweel (in Proc. of the IUTAM Symp. on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence, ed. Y. Kaneda, vol. 4, 2008, pp. 331-338, Springer), are proposed for how the vortex sheet develops, how the internal structure of the interface layer relates to the inhomogeneous rotational and irrotational motions on each side and why the dominant entrainment process of jets and wakes differs from that of free shear layers.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
    Pages (from-to)199-230
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


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