Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer during a contact baking process

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A mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer of a contact baking process is developed. In the current model formulation, a local evaporation of water is described with a reaction–diffusion approach, where a simultaneous diffusion and evaporation of water takes place. The resulting coupled model equations (unsteady state heat transfer, liquid water and water vapour) were solved using the Finite Element Method (COMSOL Multi-physics® version 3.5). During the baking process, local temperatures and overall moisture loss were measured continuously. The model – predicting temperature, liquid water content in the product and water in the vapour phase – was calibrated and partially validated using data obtained during baking of a representative food model (a pancake batter) under controlled conditions on a specially designed experimental rig. The unknown parameters in the model equations were estimated using the standard least squares method by comparing the measured with the predicted temperature profile. Good agreement was achieved between model predictions and the experimental values.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)228-235
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Heat and mass transfer
  • Evaporation
  • Contact baking process
  • Finite Element Method
  • Modelling


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