Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

Ida Marie Grønborg*, Inge Tetens, Majken Ege, Tue Christensen, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Rikke Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Purpose: Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18–50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies on safe and adequate levels. Methods: Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. Results: The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe levels of intake (< 100 µg/day) were observed after adding four different fortified foods (plain yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread) contributing with a total of 20 µg/day and a vitamin D supplement of 40 µg/day to the habitual diet. Consumption of fish, fortified foods and a vitamin D supplement of 80 µg resulted in intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) < 100 µg/day. Conclusions: In a Danish female population with a low vitamin D intake, low-dose fortification of different foods with vitamin D may be an effective and safe population-based approach.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)227-232
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Vitamin D
  • Fortification
  • Intake modelling
  • Danish women

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