Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

Ida Marie Grønborg*, Inge Tetens, Majken Ege, Tue Christensen, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Rikke Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Purpose: Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18–50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies on safe and adequate levels. Methods: Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. Results: The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe levels of intake (< 100 µg/day) were observed after adding four different fortified foods (plain yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread) contributing with a total of 20 µg/day and a vitamin D supplement of 40 µg/day to the habitual diet. Consumption of fish, fortified foods and a vitamin D supplement of 80 µg resulted in intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) < 100 µg/day. Conclusions: In a Danish female population with a low vitamin D intake, low-dose fortification of different foods with vitamin D may be an effective and safe population-based approach.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume58
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)227-232
ISSN1436-6207
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Fortification
  • Intake modelling
  • Danish women

Cite this

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title = "Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies",
abstract = "Purpose: Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18–50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies on safe and adequate levels. Methods: Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. Results: The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88{\%} of the assessed women. Safe levels of intake (< 100 µg/day) were observed after adding four different fortified foods (plain yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread) contributing with a total of 20 µg/day and a vitamin D supplement of 40 µg/day to the habitual diet. Consumption of fish, fortified foods and a vitamin D supplement of 80 µg resulted in intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) < 100 µg/day. Conclusions: In a Danish female population with a low vitamin D intake, low-dose fortification of different foods with vitamin D may be an effective and safe population-based approach.",
keywords = "Vitamin D, Fortification, Intake modelling, Danish women",
author = "Gr{\o}nborg, {Ida Marie} and Inge Tetens and Majken Ege and Tue Christensen and Andersen, {Elisabeth Wreford} and Rikke Andersen",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-017-1586-9",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "227--232",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
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Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies. / Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Andersen, Rikke.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2019, p. 227-232.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

AU - Grønborg, Ida Marie

AU - Tetens, Inge

AU - Ege, Majken

AU - Christensen, Tue

AU - Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

AU - Andersen, Rikke

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose: Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18–50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies on safe and adequate levels. Methods: Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. Results: The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe levels of intake (< 100 µg/day) were observed after adding four different fortified foods (plain yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread) contributing with a total of 20 µg/day and a vitamin D supplement of 40 µg/day to the habitual diet. Consumption of fish, fortified foods and a vitamin D supplement of 80 µg resulted in intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) < 100 µg/day. Conclusions: In a Danish female population with a low vitamin D intake, low-dose fortification of different foods with vitamin D may be an effective and safe population-based approach.

AB - Purpose: Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18–50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies on safe and adequate levels. Methods: Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. Results: The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe levels of intake (< 100 µg/day) were observed after adding four different fortified foods (plain yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread) contributing with a total of 20 µg/day and a vitamin D supplement of 40 µg/day to the habitual diet. Consumption of fish, fortified foods and a vitamin D supplement of 80 µg resulted in intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) < 100 µg/day. Conclusions: In a Danish female population with a low vitamin D intake, low-dose fortification of different foods with vitamin D may be an effective and safe population-based approach.

KW - Vitamin D

KW - Fortification

KW - Intake modelling

KW - Danish women

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-017-1586-9

DO - 10.1007/s00394-017-1586-9

M3 - Journal article

VL - 58

SP - 227

EP - 232

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

IS - 1

ER -