Modelling of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics

Raphael Comminal*, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic model of 3D Concrete Printing. The numerical simulation is used to predict the cross-sectional shape of 3D printed segments through “virtual printing” simulations. An experimental parametric study of the layer geometry is also conducted for a wide range of processing printing speeds and nozzle heights. The constitutive behavior of the cement-based mortar used in experiments is characterized by rotational and oscillatory rheological tests, and it is modelled with a Bingham constitutive law. Moreover, two formulations of the constitutive law are used in the simulations: the generalized Newtonian fluid model, and the elasto-visco-plastic fluid. Overall, the numerical results agree well with the experiments, validating the proposed computational fluid dynamics modelling approach. Finally, an example of multi-layer print simulations as well as research prospects are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106256
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • 3D concrete printing
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Layer geometry
  • Parametric study
  • Rheology

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