Modeling of higher harmonics formation in medical ultrasound systems

Louise Kold Taylor, Malene Schlaikjer, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

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The pressure eld emitted from multi-element medical ultrasound transducers can be simulated with Field II in the linear regime. By expanding this program's application to the nonlinear regime, beamforming schemes can be studied under strong focusing and high pressure levels as well, providing a valuable tool for simulating ultrasound harmonic imaging. An extended version of Field II is obtained by means of operator splitting. The pressure eld is calculated by propagation of the eld from the transducer through a number of planes. Every plane serves as a virtual aperture for the next plane, and nonlinear distortion is accounted for by the lossless Burgers' Equation. This method has no plane-wave approximation and the full eects of diraction, attenuation, and nonlinear wave propagation can be observed under electronic focusing of array transducers in medical ultrasound systems. A single example of the approach is demonstrated by comparing results from simulations and measurements from a convex array transducer. The new simulation tool is capable of simulating the formation of higher harmonics in water on the acoustical axis. The generation of nonlinear higher harmonic components can be predicted with an accuracy of 2.6 dB and 2.0 dB for the second and third harmonic, respectively
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProc. SPIE - Progress in biomedical optics and imaging
PublisherSPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication date2002
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Nonlinear Acoustics
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound Field Simulation
  • Harmonic Imaging
  • Field II

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