Asphaltene precipitation has been one of the major problems in the oil industry, and its modeling is still believed to be a quite complex issue due to the different characteristics of thousands of heavy components in crude oil. There have been several attempts to model asphaltene precipitation using various equations of state and empirical models. In the past few years, association models based on CPA and SAFT equations of state have been found to be promising models for studies of asphaltene precipitation. In this work, we compare asphaltene precipitation results obtained from different modeling approaches based on CPA, PC-SAFT with association (PC-SAFT (WA)), and. PC-SAFT without association (PC-SAFT (WOA)) models. While the modeling approaches for the CPA and PC-SAFT (WOA) have been described before in various literature, the modeling approach for PC-SAFT (WA) is proposed in this work: All three models require the same number of experimental data points (at least three upper onset pressures and one bubble pressure) in order to obtain model parameters.:Different types of asphaltene phase behavior for different reservoir fluids, where asphaltene solubility either decreases or increases with temperature, and where asphaltene precipitation occurs during reservoir fluid depressurization, and the effect of gas injection are studied in order to investigate thoroughly the potential and reliability of the models. A total of five reservoir fluids and one model oil are studied with all three models. It is found that the modeling approach with the CPA EoS is more reliable compared to the other two approaches used in this study. The advantage of the association term to describe interactions between asphaltene and other stock tank oil (STO) heavy components is also evident from this study. The sensitivity of SARA data to the modeling approach based On PC-SAFT (WOA) is also analyzed. Finally, the relationship between the binary interaction parameter of the asphaltene-CO2 pair and crossover temperature, below which asphaltene solubility increases in reservoir fluid, with CO2 gas injection is also studied.
Arya, A., Liang, X., von Solms, N., & Kontogeorgis, G. (2016). Modeling of Asphaltene Onset Precipitation Conditions with Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) Equations of State. Energy & Fuels, 30(8), 6835-6852. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00674