Model of the Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon Dynamics after Subcutaneous Administration of a Glucagon Rescue Bolus in Healthy Humans

Sabrina Lyngbye Wendt, Jan Kloppenborg Møller, Ahmad Haidar, Britta Væver Bysted, Carsten Boye Knudsen, Henrik Madsen, John Bagterp Jørgensen

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Abstract

In healthy individuals, insulin and glucagon work in a complex fashion to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. This regulation is distorted in patients with diabetes. The hepatic
glucose response due to an elevated glucagon level depends on the current insulin concentration and thus endogenous glucose production (EGP) can not be modelled without knowledge of the
concentration of both hormones in plasma. Furthermore, literature suggests an upper limit to EGP irrespective of glucagon levels. We build a simulation model of the glucose-insulin-glucagon
dynamics in man including saturation effect of EGP.

Ten healthy subjects received a 1 mg subcutaneous (SC) glucagon bolus (GlucaGen®). Plasma samples were collected until 300 minutes post dose and analyzed for glucagon, insulin, and glucose concentrations. All observations were used to fit a physiological model of the glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics using the Hovorka model with a novel multiplicative description of the effects of insulin and of glucagon on EGP.

Bayesian estimation by Maximum a Posteriori using prior knowledge reported in literature was used to estimate the model parameters for each subject. Profile likelihood plots were used to investigate parameter identifiability. Unidentifiable parameters were fixed at their prior mean values.

The new model enables simulations of the glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics in humans at both low and high glucagon concentrations (180-8000 pg/mL) and physiologic insulin concentrations
(1.2-81.9 mIU/L). The model can be used for simulation of glucagon bolus strategies for treatment of hypoglycemia and for in silico simulation of dual-hormone artificial pancreas algorithms.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date2016
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventThe American Diabetes Association's 76th Scientific Sessions (ADA 2016) - New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
Duration: 10 Jun 201614 Jun 2016
Conference number: 76
http://professional.diabetes.org/meeting/scientific-sessions/76th-scientific-sessions

Conference

ConferenceThe American Diabetes Association's 76th Scientific Sessions (ADA 2016)
Number76
CountryUnited States
CityNew Orleans, Louisiana
Period10/06/201614/06/2016
Internet address

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