To improve type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, we developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for closed-loop (CL) glucose control based on a linear second-order deterministic-stochastic model. The deterministic part of the model is specified by three patient-specific parameters: insulin sensitivity factor, insulin action time, and basal insulin infusion rate. The stochastic part is identical for all patients but identified from data from a single patient. Results of the first clinical feasibility test of the algorithm are presented.
We conducted two randomized crossover studies. Study 1 compared CL with open-loop (OL) control. Study 2 compared glucose control after CL initiation in the euglycemic (CL-Eu) and hyperglycemic (CL-Hyper) ranges, respectively. Patients were studied from 22:00–07:00 on two separate nights.
Each study included six T1DM patients (hemoglobin A1c 7.2% ± 0.4%). In study 1, hypoglycemic events (plasma glucose < 54 mg/dl) occurred on two OL and one CL nights. Average glucose from 22:00–07:00 was 90 mg/dl [74–146 mg/dl; median (interquartile range)] during OL and 108 mg/dl (101–128 mg/dl) during CL (determined by continuous glucose monitoring). However, median time spent in the range 70–144 mg/dl was 67.9% (3.0–73.3%) during OL and 80.8% (70.5–89.7%) during CL. In study 2, there was one episode of hypoglycemia with plasma glucose <54 mg/dl in a CL-Eu night. Mean glucose from 22:00–07:00 and time spent in the range 70–144 mg/dl were 121 mg/dl (117–133 mg/dl) and 69.0% (30.7–77.9%) in CL-Eu and 149 mg/dl (140–193 mg/dl) and 48.2% (34.9–72.5%) in CL-Hyper, respectively.
This study suggests that our novel MPC algorithm can safely and effectively control glucose overnight, also when CL control is initiated during hyperglycemia.
|Journal||Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|