Microbiological assessments of compost toilets: In situ measurements and laboratory studies on the survival of fecal microbial indicators using sentinel chambers: in situ measurements and laboratory studies on the survival of fecal microbial indicators using sentinel chambers

L. Tonner-Klank, J. Møller, Anita Forslund, A. Dalsgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Compost toilet systems were assessed for their ability to reduce microbial indicators and pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were not detected in any samples indicating a low survival rate in composting feces and/or an initial low occurrence. Indicator bacteria showed large variations with no clear trend of lower bacterial numbers after longer storage.In controlled composting experiments, thermophilic conditions were only reached when amendments were made (grass and a sugar solution). Even then it was impossible to ensure a homogenous temperature in the composting fecal material and therefore difficult to achieve a uniform reduction and killing of indicator organisms.Presumptive thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella typhimurium Phage 28B and eggs of Ascaridia galli, proved useful as indicators. However, regrowth was detected for enterococci and total numbers of bacteria grown at 36 degrees C. These indicator parameters may therefore overestimate the level of other (pathogenic) bacteria present in the material and can not be recommended for use as reliable indicator organisms in composting toilet systems.The addition of indicator bacteria to fecal material contained in semi-permeable capsules proved to be a useful technique to ensure that microorganisms were contained in a small test volume. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWaste Management
Volume27
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1144-1154
Number of pages11
ISSN0956-053X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Bacteria
  • Composting
  • Growth kinetics
  • Pathology
  • Microbial indicators
  • Thermophilic conditions
  • Waste treatment
  • sugar
  • assessment method
  • bacterium
  • composting
  • fecal coliform
  • in situ measurement
  • pathogen
  • survival
  • analytical equipment
  • analytical parameters
  • article
  • Ascaridia
  • bacterial count
  • bacterial growth
  • bacterial survival
  • compost
  • Enterococcus
  • feces microflora
  • grass
  • laboratory test
  • measurement
  • microbiological examination
  • nonhuman
  • priority journal
  • reliability
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • sanitation
  • temperature
  • Animals
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Denmark
  • Ovum
  • Salmonella
  • Soil
  • Sweden
  • Temperature
  • Toilet Facilities
  • Water Microbiology
  • Ascaridia galli
  • Bacteria (microorganisms)
  • ENGINEERING,
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • WASTE
  • INACTIVATION
  • Digestive system - Physiology and biochemistry
  • Microorganisms - General
  • Physiology and biochemistry of bacteria
  • Public health - Sewage disposal and sanitary measures
  • Invertebrata: comparative, experimental morphology, physiology and pathology - Aschelminthes
  • Bacteria, Eubacteria, Microorganisms
  • Animals, Aschelminths, Helminths, Invertebrates
  • thermophilic condition
  • compost toilet system

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