The evolution of microbial community and the fate of ARGs along different full-scale wastewater treatment processes (i.e., Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic, Oxidation Ditch, and Cyclic Activated Sludge System) were investigated in this study. We found that the sludges of bioreactors treating similar influent showed the similar microbial communities, independent of the treatment technologies. The horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mainly occurred in aeration tank rather that anaerobic/anoxic tank. More co-occurrence of potential pathogens and ARGs was found in wastewater than in sludge. Microbial biomass was the key driver for the fate of ARGs in wastewater, while mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was the key factor for the fate of ARGs in sludge. Combination of wastewater characteristics, microbial diversity, microbial biomass, and MGEs contributed to the variation of ARGs. Finally, it was found that enhanced nutrients removal process and tertiary treatment would benefit ARGs removal.
- Antibiotic resistance genes
- Microbial community evolution
- Full-scale wastewater treatment plan
- Network analysis
- Multiple linear regression