Anaerobic digestion (AD) with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment is widely used as an efficient sludge treatment nowadays. However, the evolution of microbial community (especially for the archaea community), the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and their associations during such process in full-scale sludge treatment plants are rarely reported. Therefore, these scientific questions were explored at two full-scale sludge treatment plants through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR. Results showed that Methanobacterium and Methanosphaera were the dominant archaea in thermal hydrolyzed sludge. The predominant bacteria in the sludge first shifted from nutrients removal functional bacteria to spore-forming bacteria after thermal hydrolysis, and then shifted to fermentative bacteria after AD. The full-scale plants could select ermB, ermF, mefA/E, qnrS and tetM. Though the bacteria and archaea biomass and community largely influenced the fate of ARGs, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the total ARGs were mainly affected by mobile genetic elements (MGEs).
- Sludge thermal hydrolysis
- Anaerobic digestion
- Microbial community
- Antibitotic resistance genes
- Multiple linear regression analysis