Micro 3D Printing by Two-Photon Polymerization: Configurations and Parameters for the Nanoscribe System

Ada-Ioana Bunea*, Nuria del Castillo Iniesta, Ariadni Droumpali, Alexandre Emmanuel Wetzel, Einstom Engay, Rafael Taboryski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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3D printing by two-photon polymerization enables the fabrication of microstructures with complex shapes and critical dimensions of a few hundreds of nanometers. On state-of-the art commercial two-photon polymerization systems, an immense 3D design freedom can be put into practice by direct laser writing using a precise fabrication technology, which makes this approach highly attractive for different applications on the microscale, such as microrobotics, micro-optics, or biosensing. However, navigating the different possible configurations and selecting the optimal parameters for the fabrication process often requires intensive testing and optimization. In addition to the more established acrylate-based resins, there is a growing interest in the use of soft materials. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of various microscale structures by two-photon polymerization using a Nanoscribe Photonic Professional GT+ commercial system. Furthermore, we describe the different configurations of the system and parameter selection, as well as commercial resins and their chemical and mechanical properties. Finally, we provide a short guide aiming to serve as starting point for the two-photon polymerization-based fabrication of various microscale architectures with distinct characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)164-180
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D printing
  • Two-photon polymerization
  • Direct laser writing
  • Microfabrication
  • Surface chemistry


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