Methods for in Situ Electroluminescence Imaging of Photovoltaic Modules under Varying Environmental Conditions

Michael Owen-Bellini*, Dana B. Sulas-Kern, Greg Perrin, Hannah North, Sergiu Spataru, Peter Hacke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Electroluminescence (EL) imaging is a powerful tool used to identify defects in photovoltaic solar cells. Typically, this type of characterization is performed in the dark using a current injection that equals short-circuit current measured at standard test conditions (STC). Restricting imaging to such a temperature range limits the information obtained about the module and cells. However, it is not trivial to develop a tool that would allow for EL imaging to be performed under a wider range of temperatures. Here we demonstrate an in situ EL imaging capability developed within an environmental chamber that allows for control of sample temperatures between-40 and 90 °C. Additionally, we demonstrate EL imaging of 4-cell mini-modules (MiMo) under front-side mechanical loading. A Raspberry Pi-connected camera with short-pass filter removed is used for EL imaging. The camera is low-cost with a small form-factor, appropriate for use in a harsh, enclosed environment. The camera is installed within a thermally isolating housing mounted within the environmental chamber. Three example cases are given for MiMos that exhibit various forms of degradation including solder fatigue and cell cracking. It is shown that by measuring at conditions above and below STC, different behaviors may be identified. In some cases, restricting characterization to STC may lead to a failure to detect damage existing in the sample.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1254-1261
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020


  • Combined-accelerated stress testing
  • DuraMAT
  • Electroluminescence
  • Module characterization

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