Methods for Calibration of Specimen Temperature During In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Experiments

Fabrizio Gaulandris, Søren Bredmose Simonsen*, Jakob Birkedal Wagner, Kristian Mølhave, Shun Muto, Luise Theil Kuhn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review


One of the biggest challenges for in situ heating transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is the ability to measure the local temperature of the specimen accurately. Despite technological improvements in the construction of TEM/STEM heating holders, the problem of being able to measure the real sample temperature is still the subject of considerable discussion. In this study, we review the present literature on methodologies for temperature calibration. We analyze calibration methods that require the use of a thermometric material in addition to the specimen under study, as well as methods that can be performed directly on the specimen of interest without the need for a previous calibration. Finally, an overview of the most important characteristics of all the treated techniques, including temperature ranges and uncertainties, is provided in order to provide an accessory database to consult before an in situ TEM/STEM temperature calibration experiment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMicroscopy and Microanalysis
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)3-17
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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