Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Bacterial and Fungal Diversity and Their Bioremediation Potential From Sediments of River Ganga and Yamuna in India

Bijay Kumar Behera*, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Biswanath Patra, Ajaya Kumar Rout, Budheswar Dehury, Basanta Kumar Das, Dhruba Jyoti Sarkar, Pranaya Kumar Parida, Rohan Kumar Raman, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Anil Rai, Trilochan Mohapatra

*Corresponding author for this work

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In this study, we report the presence of a microbial community of bioremediation potential in terms of relative abundance and taxonomic biodiversity in sediment samples of river Ganga and Yamuna, India at nine different sites. Metagenomic libraries were constructed using TruSeq Nano DNA Library Prep Kit and sequenced on NextSeq 500 by Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. Bioremediation bacteria belong to 45 genera with 92 species and fungi belong to 13 genera with 24 species have been classified using Kaiju taxonomical classification. The study revealed that Proteobacteria was the most dominant bacterial flora, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococcus–Thermus. PCA analysis revealed that bioremediation bacteria viz. Streptomyces bikiniensis, Rhodococcus qingshengii, Bacillus aerophilus, Pseudomonas veronii, etc., were more dominant in highly polluted river stretch as compared to less polluted river stretch. Similarly, the relative abundance of bioremediation fungi viz. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Rhizopus oryzae, etc., were significantly correlated with the polluted Kanpur stretch of river Ganga. Several protein domains, which play a pivotal role in bioremediation in the polluted environments, including urea ABC transporter, UrtA, UrtD, UrtE, zinc/cadmium/mercury/lead-transporting ATPase, etc., were identified using protein domain analysis. The protein domains involved in pesticide biodegradation viz. P450, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR), etc., were also discovered in river sediment metagenomics data. This is the first report on the richness of bioremediation microbial communities in the Ganga and Yamuna riverine ecosystems, highlighting their importance in aquatic pollution management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number556136
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • bioremediation
  • Ganga
  • metagenomics
  • river sediment
  • Yamuna

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