Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

K. D. Joensen, Finn Erland Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Hoghoj, R. Hustache, J. L. Wood, K. Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 keV) is presented for the first continuously graded multilayer of this kind
Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering
Pages (from-to)239-248
Publication statusPublished - 1993
EventInternational Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering 1992: SPIE: X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications - San Diego, United States
Duration: 19 Jul 199224 Jul 1992


ConferenceInternational Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering 1992
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego
OtherSPIE vol. 1736

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