Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is often underdiagnosed in women. It is therefore of interest to identify biomarkers that indicate increased risk of AMI and thereby help clinicians to have additional focus on the difficult AMI diagnosis. Type I Collagen, a component of the cardiac extracellular matrix, is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) generating the neo-epitope C1M. We investigated the association between serum-C1M and AMI and evaluated whether C1M is a prognostic marker for outcome following AMI. This study is based on The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor (PERF) Study including postmenopausal women. 316 out of 5,450 women developed AMI within the follow-up period (14 years, median). A multivariate Cox analysis assessed association between serum-C1M and AMI, and re-infaction or death subsequent to AMI. The risk of AMI increased by 18% (p = 0.03) when serum-C1M was doubled and women in the highest quartile had a 33% increased risk compared to those in the low quartiles (p = 0.025). Serum-C1M was, however not related to reinfarction or death subsequent to AMI. In this study C1M was be an independent risk factor for AMI. Measuring MMP degraded type I collagen could be useful for prediction of increased risk of AMI if replicated in other cohorts.