Covering: up to 2019Humanity is in dire need for novel medicinal compounds with biological activities ranging from antibiotic to anticancer and anti-dementia effects. Recent developments in genome sequencing and mining have revealed an unappreciated potential for bioactive molecule production in marine Proteobacteria. Also, novel bioactive compounds have been discovered through molecular manipulations of either the original marine host bacteria or in heterologous hosts. Nevertheless, in contrast to the large repertoire of such molecules as predicted by in silico analysis, few marine bioactive compounds have been reported. This review summarizes the recent advances in the study of natural products from marine Proteobacteria. Here we present successful examples on genetic engineering of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural products from marine Proteobacteria. We also discuss the future prospects of discovering novel bioactive molecules via both heterologous production methodology and the development of marine Proteobacteria as new cell factories.