Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy

A.C. Jakobsen, H. Simons, W. Ludwig, C. Yildirim, H. Leemreize, L. Porz, C. Detlefs, H.F. Poulsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

We present an x-ray microscopy approach for mapping deeply embedded dislocations in three dimensions using a monochromatic beam with a low divergence. Magnified images are acquired by inserting an x-ray objective lens in the diffracted beam. The strain fields close to the core of dislocations give rise to scattering at angles where weak beam conditions are obtained. We derive analytical expressions for the image contrast. While the use of the objective implies an integration over two directions in reciprocal space, scanning an aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope allows a reciprocal space resolution of DQ/Q < 5 · 10-5 in all directions, ultimately enabling high precision mapping of lattice strain and tilt. We demonstrate the approach on three types of samples: a multi-scale study of a large diamond crystal in transmission, magnified section topography on a 140μm thick SrTiO3 sample and a reflection study of misfit dislocations in a 120 nm thick BiFeO3 film epitaxially grown on a thick substrate. With optimal contrast, the full width of half maximum of the dislocations lines are 200 nm, corresponding to the instrumental resolution of the microscope.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Crystallography
Volume52
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)122-132
Number of pages11
ISSN0021-8898
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • X-ray diffraction
  • Microscopy
  • Topography
  • Dislocations
  • Diffraction imaging
  • Structural characterization
  • Diffraction contrast
  • Tomography
  • Synchotron radiation

Cite this

Jakobsen, A.C. ; Simons, H. ; Ludwig, W. ; Yildirim, C. ; Leemreize, H. ; Porz, L. ; Detlefs, C. ; Poulsen, H.F. / Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy. In: Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2019 ; Vol. 52, No. 1. pp. 122-132.
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title = "Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy",
abstract = "We present an x-ray microscopy approach for mapping deeply embedded dislocations in three dimensions using a monochromatic beam with a low divergence. Magnified images are acquired by inserting an x-ray objective lens in the diffracted beam. The strain fields close to the core of dislocations give rise to scattering at angles where weak beam conditions are obtained. We derive analytical expressions for the image contrast. While the use of the objective implies an integration over two directions in reciprocal space, scanning an aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope allows a reciprocal space resolution of DQ/Q < 5 · 10-5 in all directions, ultimately enabling high precision mapping of lattice strain and tilt. We demonstrate the approach on three types of samples: a multi-scale study of a large diamond crystal in transmission, magnified section topography on a 140μm thick SrTiO3 sample and a reflection study of misfit dislocations in a 120 nm thick BiFeO3 film epitaxially grown on a thick substrate. With optimal contrast, the full width of half maximum of the dislocations lines are 200 nm, corresponding to the instrumental resolution of the microscope.",
keywords = "X-ray diffraction, Microscopy, Topography, Dislocations, Diffraction imaging, Structural characterization, Diffraction contrast, Tomography, Synchotron radiation",
author = "A.C. Jakobsen and H. Simons and W. Ludwig and C. Yildirim and H. Leemreize and L. Porz and C. Detlefs and H.F. Poulsen",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1107/S1600576718017302",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "122--132",
journal = "Journal of Applied Crystallography",
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Jakobsen, AC, Simons, H, Ludwig, W, Yildirim, C, Leemreize, H, Porz, L, Detlefs, C & Poulsen, HF 2019, 'Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy', Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 122-132. https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600576718017302

Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy. / Jakobsen, A.C.; Simons, H.; Ludwig, W. ; Yildirim, C. ; Leemreize, H.; Porz, L. ; Detlefs, C. ; Poulsen, H.F.

In: Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2019, p. 122-132.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mapping of individual dislocations with dark field x-ray microscopy

AU - Jakobsen, A.C.

AU - Simons, H.

AU - Ludwig, W.

AU - Yildirim, C.

AU - Leemreize, H.

AU - Porz, L.

AU - Detlefs, C.

AU - Poulsen, H.F.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - We present an x-ray microscopy approach for mapping deeply embedded dislocations in three dimensions using a monochromatic beam with a low divergence. Magnified images are acquired by inserting an x-ray objective lens in the diffracted beam. The strain fields close to the core of dislocations give rise to scattering at angles where weak beam conditions are obtained. We derive analytical expressions for the image contrast. While the use of the objective implies an integration over two directions in reciprocal space, scanning an aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope allows a reciprocal space resolution of DQ/Q < 5 · 10-5 in all directions, ultimately enabling high precision mapping of lattice strain and tilt. We demonstrate the approach on three types of samples: a multi-scale study of a large diamond crystal in transmission, magnified section topography on a 140μm thick SrTiO3 sample and a reflection study of misfit dislocations in a 120 nm thick BiFeO3 film epitaxially grown on a thick substrate. With optimal contrast, the full width of half maximum of the dislocations lines are 200 nm, corresponding to the instrumental resolution of the microscope.

AB - We present an x-ray microscopy approach for mapping deeply embedded dislocations in three dimensions using a monochromatic beam with a low divergence. Magnified images are acquired by inserting an x-ray objective lens in the diffracted beam. The strain fields close to the core of dislocations give rise to scattering at angles where weak beam conditions are obtained. We derive analytical expressions for the image contrast. While the use of the objective implies an integration over two directions in reciprocal space, scanning an aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope allows a reciprocal space resolution of DQ/Q < 5 · 10-5 in all directions, ultimately enabling high precision mapping of lattice strain and tilt. We demonstrate the approach on three types of samples: a multi-scale study of a large diamond crystal in transmission, magnified section topography on a 140μm thick SrTiO3 sample and a reflection study of misfit dislocations in a 120 nm thick BiFeO3 film epitaxially grown on a thick substrate. With optimal contrast, the full width of half maximum of the dislocations lines are 200 nm, corresponding to the instrumental resolution of the microscope.

KW - X-ray diffraction

KW - Microscopy

KW - Topography

KW - Dislocations

KW - Diffraction imaging

KW - Structural characterization

KW - Diffraction contrast

KW - Tomography

KW - Synchotron radiation

U2 - 10.1107/S1600576718017302

DO - 10.1107/S1600576718017302

M3 - Journal article

VL - 52

SP - 122

EP - 132

JO - Journal of Applied Crystallography

JF - Journal of Applied Crystallography

SN - 0021-8898

IS - 1

ER -