Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

Russ Hauser, Niels E. Skakkebaek, Ulla Hass, Jorma Toppari, Anders Juul, Anna Maria Andersson, Andreas Kortenkamp, Jerrold J. Heindel, Leonardo Trasande

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

342 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of (sic)130 million (sensitivity analysis, (sic)117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of (sic)848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, (sic)313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates represent only a few EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiological studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEndocrinology
Volume100
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1267-1277
Number of pages11
ISSN0013-7227
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

Hauser, R., Skakkebaek, N. E., Hass, U., Toppari, J., Juul, A., Andersson, A. M., ... Trasande, L. (2015). Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union. Endocrinology, 100(4), 1267-1277. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-4325
Hauser, Russ ; Skakkebaek, Niels E. ; Hass, Ulla ; Toppari, Jorma ; Juul, Anders ; Andersson, Anna Maria ; Kortenkamp, Andreas ; Heindel, Jerrold J. ; Trasande, Leonardo. / Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union. In: Endocrinology. 2015 ; Vol. 100, No. 4. pp. 1267-1277.
@article{a7befce0d2f948cb9481561dfc691119,
title = "Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union",
abstract = "Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69{\%} probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69{\%} probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of (sic)130 million (sensitivity analysis, (sic)117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19{\%}) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of (sic)848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, (sic)313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69{\%} probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates represent only a few EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiological studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.",
author = "Russ Hauser and Skakkebaek, {Niels E.} and Ulla Hass and Jorma Toppari and Anders Juul and Andersson, {Anna Maria} and Andreas Kortenkamp and Heindel, {Jerrold J.} and Leonardo Trasande",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1210/jc.2014-4325",
language = "English",
volume = "100",
pages = "1267--1277",
journal = "Endocrinology",
issn = "0013-7227",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

Hauser, R, Skakkebaek, NE, Hass, U, Toppari, J, Juul, A, Andersson, AM, Kortenkamp, A, Heindel, JJ & Trasande, L 2015, 'Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union', Endocrinology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1267-1277. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-4325

Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union. / Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla; Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna Maria; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Trasande, Leonardo.

In: Endocrinology, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2015, p. 1267-1277.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

AU - Hauser, Russ

AU - Skakkebaek, Niels E.

AU - Hass, Ulla

AU - Toppari, Jorma

AU - Juul, Anders

AU - Andersson, Anna Maria

AU - Kortenkamp, Andreas

AU - Heindel, Jerrold J.

AU - Trasande, Leonardo

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of (sic)130 million (sensitivity analysis, (sic)117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of (sic)848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, (sic)313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates represent only a few EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiological studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.

AB - Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of (sic)130 million (sensitivity analysis, (sic)117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of (sic)848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, (sic)313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates represent only a few EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiological studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.

U2 - 10.1210/jc.2014-4325

DO - 10.1210/jc.2014-4325

M3 - Journal article

VL - 100

SP - 1267

EP - 1277

JO - Endocrinology

JF - Endocrinology

SN - 0013-7227

IS - 4

ER -