Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

T. Johansen, Jesper Schramm

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleResearchpeer-review


The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy Sources. Part A. Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects
Issue number18
Pages (from-to)1634-1645
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • miscibility
  • ethanol
  • ternary phase diagram
  • flex fuel
  • gasoline
  • bioethanol
  • flex fuel vehicle
  • phase separation
  • biofuel
  • gasohol
  • hydrous ethanol

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