Lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction for electrochemical ammonia synthesis: From batch to flow reactor

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The electrochemical synthesis of ammonia has emerged as a sustainable alternative to the traditional Haber-Bosch process. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the transition from batch reactors to flow reactors in the context of lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction for electrochemical ammonia synthesis. It underscores the advances made in mechanistic understanding, reactor design, and the exploration of key variables such as pressure, Li salts, proton shuttles, and additives. The advantages and disadvantages of both reactor types are critically assessed, offering insights into their suitability for scaling up production. Moreover, this review elucidates the role of various factors in enhancing Faradaic efficiency and energy efficiency, thus contributing to the development of more efficient, sustainable, and economically viable electrochemical ammonia synthesis methods. The synergy between fundamental research and engineering advancements in this field is highlighted, providing a roadmap for future research endeavors and industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100031
JournalMaterials Today Catalysis
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Batch reactor
  • Continuous-flow reactor
  • Electrochemical ammonia synthesis
  • Flow reactor
  • Lithium-mediated ammonia synthesis
  • Lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction
  • Membrane electrode assembly


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