Learning effectiveness of 360° video: experiences from a controlled experiment in healthcare education

Frank Ulrich*, Niels Henrik Helms, Uffe Poulsgaard Frandsen, Anne Vollen Rafn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies provide new opportunities for e-learning by giving the students an increased sense of presence. One of the VR technologies recently introduced to the public is (360-degree) 360° video. Despite its limited empirical backing as an effective educational tool, this emerging technology could prove useful for e-learning and thus become a feasible IT-investment for education institutions. This paper reports on a controlled experiment with 360° video used in healthcare education. Eighty-one physiotherapy students participated in the experiment. Results show 360° video to be just as effective to enhance academic performance as regular video and traditional teaching. However, 360° video and regular video were less effective than traditional teaching in students’ learning satisfaction. Only on the student’s emotions about the learning climate did 360° video outperform regular video. Our results show that when comparing these educational technologies side-by-side with traditional teaching, traditional teaching is on most constructs equally or more effective. However, 360° video is a viable alternative to VR and regular video, because it is cost-effective and have a positive effect on the user’s emotional response to the learning climate. These factors may influence how 360° video is accepted by students and educational institutions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Number of pages14
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • 360-degree video
  • Virtual reality
  • Learning effectiveness
  • Healthcare education
  • Controlled experiment
  • Technology acceptance

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