LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

Gitte Lemming, Michael Zwicky Hauschild, Julie Claire Claudia Chambon, Gabriele Manoli, Philip John Binning, C. Bulle, M. Margni, Poul Løgstrup Bjerg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities. Although two different remediation methods reach the same remedial target with time, their timeframes can be substantially different and lead to a difference in the local toxic impacts over time. By including primary impacts in the LCA of remediation this quality difference is accounted for. Primary impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation of metabolites during biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, of which particularly vinyl chloride is problematic due to its toxic and carcinogenic effects. In this study, the assessment of local toxic impacts with the USEtox model was therefore combined with site-specific reactive transport modeling of the contaminant mass discharge to groundwater. The exposure via contaminated groundwater was subsequently estimated using exposure parametres representing the local groundwater body. The developed methodology for a site-specific impact assessment of primary impacts is tested on two case localities contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Secondary and primary impacts of a number of remediation options for the two sites are evaluated and compared. The results show that especially vinyl chloride, which is an intermediate product during biodegradation of trichloroethene, contributes significantly to the human toxicity of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting Abstract Book
Number of pages68
Publication date2011
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventSETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting: Ecosystem Protection in a Sustainable World: A Challenge for Science and Regulation - Milano Convention Centre, Milano, Italy
Duration: 15 May 201119 May 2011
Conference number: 21


ConferenceSETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting
LocationMilano Convention Centre
Internet address

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