Large-scale provision of frequency control via V2G: The Bornholm power system case

Antonio Zecchino, Alexander Maria Prostejovsky*, Charalampos Ziras, Mattia Marinelli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This paper assesses the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) providing primary frequency regulation via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. The aim of the work is to define a set of recommendations in order to guarantee a stable large-scale deployment of EV fleets as primary reserve providers. A realistic fleet model is proposed, which emulates the aggregated response of a number of EVs characterized by V2G hardware response times derived in laboratory tests. The effects of primary frequency control via EV fleets replacing conventional generating units are assessed with a sensitivity study in a single-bus power system with growing fleet sizes and response times. Two recommendations are derived to guarantee safe and stable operation: Recommendation 1 requires the share of EVs providing primary reserve to be smaller than the reserve from conventional units; Recommendation 2 requires response times below a given limit value, calculated as a function of the following power system parameters: the system inertia, the total primary reserve over the rotating generation capacity, and the employed droop gain. The full 60 kV power system of the Danish island of Bornholm is then employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed requirements on a real system with complex dynamics, non-linearities and voltage dependencies.
Original languageEnglish
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Volume170
Pages (from-to)25-34
Number of pages10
ISSN0378-7796
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Electric vehicles
  • Electric vehicles aggregation
  • Frequency control
  • Frecuency stability

Cite this

@article{b6896fdd461646b1a8a73670d64f8b97,
title = "Large-scale provision of frequency control via V2G: The Bornholm power system case",
abstract = "This paper assesses the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) providing primary frequency regulation via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. The aim of the work is to define a set of recommendations in order to guarantee a stable large-scale deployment of EV fleets as primary reserve providers. A realistic fleet model is proposed, which emulates the aggregated response of a number of EVs characterized by V2G hardware response times derived in laboratory tests. The effects of primary frequency control via EV fleets replacing conventional generating units are assessed with a sensitivity study in a single-bus power system with growing fleet sizes and response times. Two recommendations are derived to guarantee safe and stable operation: Recommendation 1 requires the share of EVs providing primary reserve to be smaller than the reserve from conventional units; Recommendation 2 requires response times below a given limit value, calculated as a function of the following power system parameters: the system inertia, the total primary reserve over the rotating generation capacity, and the employed droop gain. The full 60 kV power system of the Danish island of Bornholm is then employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed requirements on a real system with complex dynamics, non-linearities and voltage dependencies.",
keywords = "Electric vehicles, Electric vehicles aggregation, Frequency control, Frecuency stability",
author = "Antonio Zecchino and Prostejovsky, {Alexander Maria} and Charalampos Ziras and Mattia Marinelli",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsr.2018.12.027",
language = "English",
volume = "170",
pages = "25--34",
journal = "Electric Power Systems Research",
issn = "0378-7796",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Large-scale provision of frequency control via V2G: The Bornholm power system case. / Zecchino, Antonio; Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria; Ziras, Charalampos; Marinelli, Mattia.

In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 170, 2019, p. 25-34.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Large-scale provision of frequency control via V2G: The Bornholm power system case

AU - Zecchino, Antonio

AU - Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

AU - Ziras, Charalampos

AU - Marinelli, Mattia

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - This paper assesses the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) providing primary frequency regulation via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. The aim of the work is to define a set of recommendations in order to guarantee a stable large-scale deployment of EV fleets as primary reserve providers. A realistic fleet model is proposed, which emulates the aggregated response of a number of EVs characterized by V2G hardware response times derived in laboratory tests. The effects of primary frequency control via EV fleets replacing conventional generating units are assessed with a sensitivity study in a single-bus power system with growing fleet sizes and response times. Two recommendations are derived to guarantee safe and stable operation: Recommendation 1 requires the share of EVs providing primary reserve to be smaller than the reserve from conventional units; Recommendation 2 requires response times below a given limit value, calculated as a function of the following power system parameters: the system inertia, the total primary reserve over the rotating generation capacity, and the employed droop gain. The full 60 kV power system of the Danish island of Bornholm is then employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed requirements on a real system with complex dynamics, non-linearities and voltage dependencies.

AB - This paper assesses the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) providing primary frequency regulation via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. The aim of the work is to define a set of recommendations in order to guarantee a stable large-scale deployment of EV fleets as primary reserve providers. A realistic fleet model is proposed, which emulates the aggregated response of a number of EVs characterized by V2G hardware response times derived in laboratory tests. The effects of primary frequency control via EV fleets replacing conventional generating units are assessed with a sensitivity study in a single-bus power system with growing fleet sizes and response times. Two recommendations are derived to guarantee safe and stable operation: Recommendation 1 requires the share of EVs providing primary reserve to be smaller than the reserve from conventional units; Recommendation 2 requires response times below a given limit value, calculated as a function of the following power system parameters: the system inertia, the total primary reserve over the rotating generation capacity, and the employed droop gain. The full 60 kV power system of the Danish island of Bornholm is then employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed requirements on a real system with complex dynamics, non-linearities and voltage dependencies.

KW - Electric vehicles

KW - Electric vehicles aggregation

KW - Frequency control

KW - Frecuency stability

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsr.2018.12.027

DO - 10.1016/j.epsr.2018.12.027

M3 - Journal article

VL - 170

SP - 25

EP - 34

JO - Electric Power Systems Research

JF - Electric Power Systems Research

SN - 0378-7796

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