Large-scale high aspect ratio Al-doped ZnO nanopillars arrays as anisotropic metamaterials.

Evgeniy Shkondin, Osamu Takayama, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee Panah, Pei Liu, Pernille Voss Larsen, Mikkel Dysseholm Mar, Flemming Jensen, Andrei Lavrinenko

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    High aspect ratio free-standing Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanopillars and nanotubes were fabricated using a combination of advanced reactive ion etching and atomic layer
    deposition (ALD) techniques. Prior to the pillar and tube fabrication, AZO layers were grown on flat silicon and glass substrates with different Al concentrations at 150-250 °C. For each temperature and Al concentration the ALD growth behavior, crystalline structure, physical, electrical and optical properties were investigated. It was found that AZO films deposited at 250 °C exhibit the most pronounced plasmonic behavior with the highest plasma frequency. During pillar fabrication, AZO conformally passivates the silicon template, which is characteristic of typical ALD growth conditions. The last step of fabrication is heavily dependent on the selective chemistry of the SF6 plasma. It was shown that silicon between AZO structures can be selectively removed with no observable influence on the ALD deposited coatings. The prepared free-standing AZO structures were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The restoration of the effective permittivities of the structures reveals that their anisotropy significantly deviates from the effective medium approximation (EMA) prognoses. It suggests that the permittivity of the AZO in tightly confined nanopillars is very different from that of flat AZO films.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalOptical Materials Express
    Issue number5
    Pages (from-to)1606-1627
    Publication statusPublished - 2017


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