Large eddy simulation of soot formation and oxidation for different ambient temperatures and oxygen levels

Min Zhang, Jiun Cai Ong, Kar Mun Pang, Xue-Song Bai, Jens H. Walther*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    This paper presents the numerical study of soot formation and oxidation processes across different ambient temperatures (900, 1000, and 1100) and oxygen levels (15% and 21% O2) using large eddy simulation coupled with a two-equation soot model. The predicted ignition delay time, lift-off length and soot distribution show good agreements with the corresponding experimental data. A stronger oxidation of the precursor (C2H2) in the 21% O2 cases results in a lower C2H2 formed, as compared to the 15% O2 cases. The increasing ambient temperature leads to the fuel-richer region (roughly equivalence ratio 1.6) becoming more favorable for C2H2 formation and, consequently, soot formation. This is more apparent in the 15% O2 cases due to a weaker oxidation of C2H2 via O and OH radicals. As a result, the difference in the soot mass between the 15% and 21% O2 cases becomes larger as the ambient temperature increases. The effects of ambient temperature and O2 level on soot sub-processes are investigated. In addition to the flame temperature, OH mass and soot surface area are the dominant parameters in the oxidation processes via OH and O2 at varying O2 levels, respectively.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number118094
    JournalApplied Energy
    Number of pages12
    Publication statusPublished - 2022


    • Spray A
    • Soot formation
    • Soot oxidation
    • Ambient temperature
    • Oxygen levels


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