Label-Free Blood Typing by Raman Spectroscopy and Artificial Intelligence

Emil Alstrup Jensen, Murat Serhatlioglu, Cihan Uyanik, Anne Todsen Hansen, Sadasivan Puthusserypady, Morten Hanefeld Dziegiel*, Anders Kristensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Label-free blood typing by Raman spectroscopy (RS) is demonstrated by training an artificial intelligence (AI) model on 271 blood typed donor whole blood samples. A fused silica micro-capillary flow cell enables fast generation of a large dataset of Raman spectra of individual donors. A combination of resampling methods, machine learning and deep learning is used to classify the ABO blood group, 27 erythrocyte antigens, 4 platelet antigens, regular anti-B titers of blood group A donors, regular anti-A,-B titers of blood group O donors, and ABH-secretor status, from a single Raman spectrum. The average area under the curve value of the ABO classification is 0.91 ± 0.03 and 0.72 ± 0.09, respectively, for the remaining traits. The classification performance of all parameters is discussed in the context of dataset balance and antigen concentration. Post-hoc scalability analysis of the models shows the potential of RS and AI for future applications in transfusion medicine and blood banking.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2301462
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number2
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Blood typing
  • Machine/deep learning
  • Micro-capillary fluidics
  • Precision transfusion medicine
  • Raman spectroscopy


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