Kinetics and energetics of the binding between barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and barley alpha-amylase 2 analyzed by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry

Peter K. Nielsen, Birgit C. Bønsager, Carolyn R. Berland, Bent W. Sigurskjold, Birte Svensson

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Abstract

The kinetics and energetics of the binding between barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) or BASI mutants and barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) were determined using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Binding kinetics were in accordance with a 1:1 binding model. At pH 5.5, [Ca(2+)] = 5 mM, and 25 degrees C, the k(on) and k(off) values were 8.3 x 10(+4) M(-1) s(-1) and 26.0 x 10(-4) s(-1), respectively, corresponding to a K(D) of 31 nM. K(D) was dependent on pH, and while k(off) decreased 16-fold upon increasing pH from 5.5 to 8.0, k(on) was barely affected. The crystal structure of AMY2-BASI shows a fully hydrated Ca(2+) at the protein interface, and at pH 6.5 increase of [Ca(2+)] in the 2 microM to 5 mM range raised the affinity 30-fold mainly due to reduced k(off). The K(D) was weakly temperature-dependent in the interval from 5 to 35 degrees C as k(on) and k(off) were only increasing 4- and 12-fold, respectively. A small salt dependence of k(on) and k(off) suggested a minor role for global electrostatic forces in the binding and dissociation steps. Substitution of a positively charged side chain in the mutant K140L within the AMY2 inhibitory site of BASI accordingly did not change k(on), whereas k(off) increased 13-fold. ITC showed that the formation of the AMY2-BASI complex is characterized by a large exothermic heat (Delta H = -69 +/- 7 kJ mol(-1)), a K(D) of 25 nM (27 degrees C, pH 5.5), and an unfavorable change in entropy (-T Delta S = 26 +/- 7 kJ mol(-1)). Calculations based on the thermodynamic data indicated minimal structural changes during complex formation
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiochemistry
Volume42
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1478-1487
ISSN0006-2960
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes

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