We theoretically examine the role of Kerr nonlinearities for graphene plasmonics in nanostructures, specifically in nanoribbons. The nonlinear Kerr interaction is included semiclassically in the intraband approximation. The resulting electromagnetic problem is solved numerically by self-consistent iteration with linear steps using a real-space discretization. We derive a simple approximation for the resonance shifts in general graphene nanostructures, and obtain excellent agreement with numerics for moderately high field strengths. Near plasmonic resonances the nonlinearities are strongly enhanced due to field enhancement, and the total nonlinearity is significantly affected by the field inhomogeneity of the plasmonic excitation. Finally, we discuss the emergence of a plasmonic bistability which exists for energies red-shifted relative to the linear resonance. Our results offer insights into the role of nonlinear interaction in nanostructured graphene and pave the way for experimental investigation.
Christensen, T., Yan, W., Jauho, A-P., Wubs, M., & Mortensen, N. A. (2015). Kerr nonlinearity and plasmonic bistability in graphene nanoribbons. Physical Review B, 92(12), 5. [121407(R)]. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.92.121407