Kalman filter and wavelet cross-correlation for VHF broadband interferometer lightning mapping

Ammar Alammari, Ammar A. Alkahtani*, Mohd Riduan Ahmad, Fuad Noman, Mona Riza Mohd Esa, Muhammad Haziq Mohammad Sabri, Sulaiman Ali Mohammad, Ahmed Salih Al-Khaleefa, Zen Kawasaki, Vassilios Agelidis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Lightning mapping systems based on perpendicular crossed baseline interferometer (ITF) technology have been developed rapidly in recent years. Several processing methods have been proposed to estimate the temporal location and spatial map of lightning strikes. In this paper, a single very high frequency (VHF) ITF is used to simulate and augment the lightning maps. We perform a comparative study of using different processing techniques and procedures to enhance the localization and mapping of lightning VHF radiation. The benchmark environment involves the use of different noise reduction and cross-correlation methods. Moreover, interpolation techniques are introduced to smoothen the correlation peaks for more accurate lightning localization. A positive narrow bipolar event (NBE) lightning discharge is analyzed and the mapping procedure is confirmed using both simulated and measured lightning signals. The results indicate that a good estimation of lightning radiation sources is achieved when using wavelet denoising and cross-correlations in wavelet-domain (CCWD) with a minimal error of 3.46ffi. The investigations carried out in this study confirm that the ITF mapping system could effectively map the lightning VHF radiation source.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4238
JournalApplied Sciences (switzerland)
Issue number12
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • Interferometer (ITF)
  • Lightning mapping
  • Magnetic direction finder (MDF)
  • Time of arrival (TOA)

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