Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

S. J. Bolton*, Alberto Adriani, V. Adumitroaie, M. Allison, J. Anderson, S. Atreya, J. Bloxham, S. Brown, J. E. P. Connerney, E. DeJong, W.M. Folkner, D. Gautier, D. Grassi, S. Gulkis, T. Guillot, C. Hansen, W. B. Hubbard, L. Iess, A. Ingersoll, Matty JanssenJohn Leif Jørgensen, Y. Kaspi, S. M. Levin, C. Li, J. Lunine, Y. Miguel, A. Mura, G. Orton, T. Owen, M. A. Ravine, E. Smith, P. Steffes, E. Stone, D. A. Stevenson, R. M. Thorne, J. Waite, Gonzalo Durante-Rodriguez, R. W. Ebert, K. T. Greathouse, V. Hue, M. Parisi, J. R. Szalay, H.R. Wilson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number6340
Pages (from-to)821-825
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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